Hydroxyapatite is a basic mineral that is very important to the human body framework. Recently, synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) and its nanocomposites (HANs) are the subject of intense research for bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications, due to their unique, tailor-made characteristics, as well as their similarities with the bone mineral component in the human body. Although hydroxyapatite has good biocompatibility and osteoconductive characteristics, the poor mechanical strength restricts its use in non-load-bearing applications. Consequently, a rapid increase in reinforcing of other nanomaterials into hydroxyapatite for the formation of HANs could improve the mechanical properties. Most of the research reported on the success of other nanomaterials such as metals, ceramics and natural/synthetic polymers as additions into hydroxyapatite is reviewed. In addition, this review also focuses on the addition of various substances into hydroxyapatite for the formation of various HANs and at the same time to try to minimize the limitations so that various bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications can be exploited.
For full article: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S298936
Cite this article:
Abdul Halim NA, Hussein MZ, Kandar MK. Nanomaterials-Upconverted Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering and a Platform for Drug Delivery. Int J Nanomedicine. 2021;16:6477-6496 https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S298936
Date of Input: 28/11/2023 | Updated: 28/11/2023 | roslina_ar
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology,
Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia